Surveying equipment is basically used by surveying professionals to determine the precise
positions of points, distances, and angles of a terrestrial area.
Some surveying equipment includes robotic total stations, GIS, GNSS receivers, theodolites,
retroreflectors, clinometer, 3D scanners, drones, subsurface locators, and surveying software.
They are often used for establishing property boundaries, preparing the surface location for
construction sites or for other purposes required by the government or civil law.
Setting out work or Setting out Survey is the process of leveling and positioning of building
lines and road alignments.
Basically the process involves relocating a building design onto the land itself for builders to
follow during construction. This way the correct point of extent, level, and angle are established
to ensure accuracy.
Setting out is sensibly carried out by an expert contractor and is supervised by an
architect, head project consultant engineer, and other qualified members of the team.
The tools used in Setting out a Building include:
1. Theodolites- A precision instrument, which is used to measure and mark out the angles both
horizontally & vertically.
2. Measuring tape- Used for demarcating the external building wall extents and partitioning the
3. Spirit Level- To determine the horizontal and vertical levels and to ensure they are accurate.
4. Nylon String-Used for demarcating the building extent and wall thickness.
5. Lime Powder- The powder is used for making the foundation walling and positioning column
footing for further digging.